Musielak prof. Rheinlandbastarde . Od r. Z kolei D. Krotoszyna .
Broszura pt. Z Wikipedii, wolnej encyklopedii. Bowler r. Urbanek A. Sugalska, Eugenika. Appleton and Company, New York , s. Haeckel, The History of Creation Haeckel, Dzieje utworzenia przyrody , Haeckel, The History of Creation , D. Appleton and Company, New York , —, s. Haeckel, Dowody transformacji , s. Gilbert, Chapter W poszukiwaniu istoty niemieckiego totalitaryzmu , Wyd.
Mosse, Kryzys ideologii niemieckiej. Garlicki, Co to jest eugenika? Grotjahn, Higiena rozrodu. Eugenicznego, Warszawa , s. Fischer, Berlin , s. W poszukiwaniu istoty niemieckiego totalitaryzmu, Wyd. III, Correlation, personal identification and eugenics , s. Sugalska , Eugenika. Maiwald, G.
Darwinism became increasingly appealing to educated middle-class Germans. Crime statistics in regard to German Gypsies before and during the Nazi regime are not very reliable. Some of the oldest and pathbreaking studies have concentrated on laying bare the frightful particulars of Nazi medical crimes and their perpetrators. Retrieved 1 August She died there on May 14, Camping was permitted only in places assigned by the local police; campers had to register with the police and had to deposit their identity cards and permits for the duration of their stay.
TRIO, Warszawa , s. Arendt, Arendt H.
We must remember that progress is no invariable rule. It is very difficult to say 23 chapter 1 why one civilized nation rises, becomes more powerful, and spreads more widely than another; or why the same nation progresses more quickly at one time than another. We can only say that it depends on an increase in the actual number of the population, on the number of men endowed with high intellectual and moral faculties, as well as on their standard of excellence.
Yet might selection do something not only for the bodily constitution and frame of his offspring, but for their intellectual and moral qualities. Both sexes should refrain from marriage if they are in any marked degree inferior in body or mind.
Everyone does a good service who aids towards this end. By the end of the nineteenth century, however, the inheritance of acquired characteristics was challenged both by Galton himself and, even more thoroughly, by the German embryologist August Weismann — Even after , Galton and some of his British eugenic-minded colleagues like Karl Pearson — first rejected the universality of Mendelism; they attempted to demonstrate the laws of human inheritance statistically through what was then known as biometry, but they could not provide a scientific mechanism for the transmission of the hereditary material.
By the end of the first decade of the twentieth century, however, Mendelism won the day even in Britain. Charles B.
By , however, he had become an adherent of Mendelism and began to apply his principles to the study of human traits. The link Davenport made between Mendelism and eugenics can best be seen in his popular book Heredity in Relationship to Eugenics Like their counterparts in Britain, American enthusiasts for the cause such as Davenport viewed eugenics as a way to apply science to the problems of a class-ridden and socially heterogeneous industrial society. Physicians enjoyed extraordinary prestige in Germany because of the medical breakthroughs, particularly in bacteriology, of the nineteenth century.
This reinforced their view of themselves as the one professional group possessing the expertise to safeguard the health and welfare of the young nation. Davenport, ca. Photo courtesy of the American Philosophical Library. Rather, Schallmayer insisted that long-term national power depended upon the biological vitality of its citizens and neglect of hereditary fitness would lead to the downfall of the state. More important than Schallmayer, especially for the subsequent contours of the German movement, was Ploetz.
As we will see, this double meaning of the term racial hygiene would be especially welcome by those German eugenic enthusiasts who accepted ideologies of Aryan or Nordic supremacy. In the early years, the Archiv carried articles dealing with genetics, human heredity, and population policy as well as eugenics.
By the several individual German chapters united under the title 27 chapter 1 German Society for Racial Hygiene, by far the most numerous section of the Society. During the first decade of the twentieth century, Britain and the United States also founded national professional societies and organizations that embraced not only eugenics narrowly defined, but more theoretical work on human heredity.
In the British Eugenics Education Society was founded; its first president was a friend of Galton. Although its early membership was relatively small approximately 1, , what it lacked in numbers it made up for in the importance of its members. Approximately 80 percent of them were eminent enough to be included in the Dictionary of National Biography. Moreover, many members of the Society were also involved in other related organizations like the Society for the Study of Inebriety and the Moral Education League. This argues for the prominence and visibility of the early British Eugenics Society members.
In the United States, there were several organizations with an interest in human heredity and eugenics. The American Breeders Association, with its Section of Eugenics, and the Race Betterment Foundation spread the eugenic gospel early in the twentieth century. It was founded by Davenport with the financial support of Mary Harriman, the widow of the railroad magnate E.
Davenport convinced the wealthy widow that money donated to a research institute devoted to human heredity and eugenics was a wise investment. Laughlin — , a man with lackluster scientific qualifications but enormous energy for the cause of eugenics. The ERO had two main functions: to pursue scientific research into the inheritance of human traits; and to popularize eugenic ideas and lobby for eugenics-related legislation. Nonetheless, the majority of American geneticists supported eugenics in the early years.
Indeed, all the members of the first editorial board of the American journal Genetics, established in , endorsed eugenics at the time. Somewhat later, Canada also embraced eugenics on the model of other Anglo-Saxon countries. Here the Anglo-Canadian fear of French-Canadian fertility was an important motivating factor. Perhaps surprisingly, Canadian eugenics enjoyed its greatest impact in the s, at a time when supporters in the United States and Britain were becoming more critical.
Scandinavian biologists, physicians, and social activists were also interested in genetics and its new applied science, and incipient eugenic movements sprouted in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. By , the social and economic changes associated with industrialization and urbanization affected the Scandinavian countries just as they had affected Britain, the United States, and Germany in the nineteenth century.
However, unlike the three Anglo-Saxon countries, Scandinavia ultimately made peace with its labor movement. We will very briefly examine two countries: Norway and Sweden. In he founded a private research institute for his professional passion, and only two years later, he was on the lecture circuit spreading the eugenics gospel in his homeland. Vogt, a practicing psychiatrist, was a trained human geneticist. His work on manic-depressive mental illness supported the generally accepted view that mental disorders were hereditary. Photo courtesy of the American Philosophical Society.
Like many eugenicists with an outward racist bent, he had excellent contacts with Charles Davenport and the ERO. Swedish eugenics paralleled the German racial hygiene movement. In the early years, there were strong ties between eugenicists in both countries.
The first director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Eugen Fischer, was personally enamored by the work undertaken at the Swedish Institute during his visit there. We would say today that eugenics—perhaps more so than any other applied science—is socially constructed. The differences in style and understanding of eugenics become apparent if we examine two Latin countries, France and Brazil. More so than in Anglo-Saxon countries, the French movement owes its origins to perceptions of catastrophic population decline.
There were relatively few eugenicists in France who embraced Mendelism. Moreover, in France, negative eugenic measures like sterilization were unpopular, and few French eugenic supporters advocated them. Again, there are social circumstances that account for this, above all the influence of the Catholic Church. Instead, positive eugenic measures, especially those that would reduce the mortality rate of infants, were the heart of the French eugenic project.
The idea that bound the largely medically trained French eugenic practitioners together was coined by one of the founders of the movement, the obstetrician Adolphe Pinard — : puericulture. The Brazilian Eugenics Society dates from Like its counterpart in France, it was largely supported by medically trained individuals who believed in the power of science to solve social problems. The social issues in Brazil, however, were not quite the same. More so than in France, eugenics in Brazil, as in the Anglo-Saxon countries, was fueled by class tensions owing to industrialization and urbanization.
But like French and unlike Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian eugenics, Brazilian practitioners were largely attracted to positive eugenics and identified their science with what we might call social or public hygiene measures.
watch Nothing could be further from the truth. It is certainly the case that many eugenicists were both conservative and racist, and they used their influence to further their prejudices. As we will see, however, not only were there left-leaning, socialist, and Jewish supporters 33 chapter 1 of eugenics in Germany prior to the Third Reich,27 but the former Soviet Union, the home of the Bolshevist revolution, had its own eugenics movement until Stalin undermined it in the late s.
Even then, it continued until the mid to late s as a stealth operation of sorts under the protection of the state-supported Maxim Gorky Institute for Medical Genetics in Moscow.